July 3, Letter from John Adams to Mrs. Adams: Yesterday the greatest question was decided which ever was debated in America: a resolution was passed without one dissenting Colony, that the United Colonies are free and independent States. In a few days there will be a Declaration setting forth the causes which have impelled us to this mighty Revolution, and the reasons which will justify it in the sight of God and man

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JOHN ADAMS TO MRS˙ ADAMS.

Philadelphia, July 3, 1776.

Your favour of 17th June, dated at Plymouth, was handed me by yesterday' s post. I was much pleased to find that you had taken a journey to Plymouth to see your friends, in the long absence of one whom you may wish to see. The excursion will be an amusement, and will serve your health. How happy would it have made me to have taken this journey with you.

I was informed a day or two before the receipt of your letter that you were gone to Plymouth, by Mrs˙ Polly Palmer, who was obliging enough, in your absence, to send me the particulars of the expedition to the lower harbour against the men-of-war. Her narration is executed with a precision and perspicuity which would have become the pen of an accomplished historian.

I am very glad you had so good an opportunity of seeing one of our little American men-of-war. Many ideas new to you must have presented themselves in such a scene; and you will in future better understand the relations of sea engagements.

I rejoice extremely at Dr˙ Bulfinch' s petition to open a Hospital; but I hope the business will be done upon a larger scale, I hope that one Hospital will be licensed in every County, if not in every town. I am happy to find you resolved to be with the children in the first class. Mr˙ Whitney and Mrs˙ Katy Quincy are cleverly through inoculation in this city.

The information you give me of our friend' s refusing his appointment has given me much pain, grief, and anxiety. I believe I shall be obliged to follow his example. I have not fortune enough to support my family, and, what is of more importance, to support the dignity of that exalted station. It is too high and lifted up for me, who delight in nothing so much as retreat, solitude, silence, and obscurity. In private life, no one has a right to censure me for following my own inclinations, in retirement, simplicity, and frugality. In publick life every man has a right to remark as he pleases; at least he thinks so.

Yesterday the greatest question was decided which ever was debated in America, and a greater perhaps never was nor will be decided among men. A resolution was passed, without one dissenting Colony, "that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States; and, as such, they have, and of right ought to have, full power to make war, conclude peace, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which other States may rightfully do." You will see, in a few days, a Declaration setting forth the causes which have impelled us to this mighty revolution, and the reasons which will justify it in the sight of God and man. A plan of Confederation will be taken up in a few days.

When I look back to the year 1761, and recollect the argument concerning writs of assistance in the Superior Court, which I have hitherto considered as the commencement of this controversy between Great Britain and America, and run through the whole period, from that time to this, and recollect the series of political events, the chain of causes and effects, I am surprised at the suddenness, as well as greatness of this revolution. Britain has been filled with folly, and America with wisdom; at least this is my judgment. Time must determine. It is the will of Heaven that the two countries should be sundered forever. It may be the will of Heaven that America shall suffer calamities still more wasting and distresses yet more dreadful. If this is to be the case, it will have this good effect at least, it will inspire us with many virtues which we have not, and correct

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many errors, follies, and vices, which threaten to disturb, dishonour, and destroy us. The furnace of affliction produces refinement in States as well as individuals. And the new Governments we are assuming in every part will require a purification from our vices and an augmentation of our virtues, or they will be no blessings. The people wilt have unbounded power; and the people are extremely addicted to corruption and venality, as well as the great. But I must submit all my hopes and fears to an overruling Providence, in which, unfashionable as the faith may be, I firmly believe.